
Abstract: We study theoretically the collective dynamics of immotile particles bound to a 2D surface atop a 3D fluid layer. These particles are chemically active and produce a chemical concentration field that creates surfacetension gradients along the surface. The resultant Marangoni stresses create flows that carry the particles, possibly concentrating them. For a 3D diffusiondominated concentration field and Stokesian fluid we show that the surface dynamics of active particle density can be determined using nonlocal 2D surface operators. Remarkably, we also show that for both deep or shallow fluid layers this surface dynamics reduces to the 2D KellerSegel model for the collective chemotactic aggregation of slime mold colonies. Mathematical analysis has established that the KellerSegel model can yield finitetime, finitemass concentration singularities. We show that such singular behavior occurs in our finitedepth system, and study the associated 3D flow structures. 

Abstract: Selfpropelled particles can exhibit surprising nonequilibrium behaviors, and how they interact with obstacles remains an important open problem. We show experimentally that chemically propelled microrods can be captured, with little decrease in their speed, into close orbits around solid spheres resting on a horizontal plane. This shortrange interaction is consistent with a model, based on lubrication theory, of a force and torquefree swimmer driven by a surface slip and moving near a solid surface. This study reveals the crucial aspects of interactions of selfpropelled particles with passive objects, and brings into question the use of colloidal tracers as probes of active matter. 

Abstract:
Microorganisms can preferentially orient and move along
gradients of a chemoattractant (i.e., chemotax) while
colonies of many microorganisms can collectively undergo
complex dynamics in response to chemoattractants that
they themselves produce. For colonies or groups of
microswimmers we investigate how an "autochemotactic"
response that should lead to swimmer aggregation is
affected by the nontrivial fluid flows
that are generated by collective swimming. For this, we
consider chemotaxis models based upon a hydrodynamic
theory of motile suspensions that are fully coupled to
chemoattractant production, transport, and diusion.
Linear analysis of isotropically ordered suspensions
reveals both an aggregative instability due to
chemotaxis that occurs independently of swimmer type,
and a hydrodynamic instability when the swimmers are
"pushers". Nonlinear simulations show nonetheless that
hydrodynamic interactions can signicantly modify the
chemotacticallydriven aggregation dynamics in
suspensions of "pushers" or "pullers". Different states
of the dynamics resulting from these coupled
interactions in the colony are discussed. 

Abstract: Erosion of solid material by flowing fluids plays an important role in shaping landforms, and in this natural context is often dictated by processes of high complexity. Here, we examine the coupled evolution of solid shape and fluid flow within the idealized setting of a cylindrical body held against a fast, unidirectional flow, and eroding under the action of fluid shear stress. Experiments and simulations both show selfsimilar evolution of the body, with an emerging quasitriangular geometry that is an attractor of the shape dynamics. Our fluid erosion model, based on Prandtl boundary layer theory, yields a scaling law that accurately predicts the body's vanishing rate. Further, a class of exact solutions provides a partial prediction for the body's terminal form as one with a leading surface of uniform shear stress. Our simulations show this predicted geometry to emerge robustly from a range of different initial conditions, and allow us to explore its local stability. The sharp, faceted features of the terminal geometry defy the intuition of erosion as a globally smoothing process. 

Abstract: We study theoretically the dynamics of porous ellipsoids rotating in simple shear flows. We also examine the orientational diffusion of permeable ellipses and spheroids in the absence of a background fl ow. We use the BrinkmanDebyeBueche (BDB) model to simulate fl ow within and through particles and solve the coupled StokesBDB equations to calculate the overall flow field and the rotation rate of porous ellipsoids. Our results show that the permeability has little effect on the rotational behavior of particles, and that the Jeffrey's prediction of the angular velocity of impermeable ellipsoids in simple shear flows (Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A, vol. 102, 1922, pp. 161179) remains an excellent approximation, if not an exact one, for porous ellipsoids. Employing an appropriate scaling, we present approximate expressions for the orientational diffusion of ellipses and spheroids. Our findings can serve as basis for developing a suspension theory for non spherical porous particles. 

Abstract: Active
suspensions, such as suspensions of selfpropelled
microorganisms and related synthetic microswimmers, are
known to undergo complex dynamics and pattern formation
as a result of hydrodynamic interactions. In this
review, we summarize recent efforts to model these
systems using continuum kinetic theories. We first
derive a basic kinetic model for a suspension of
selfpropelled rodlike particles and discuss its
stability and nonlinear dynamics. We then present
extensions of this model to analyze the effective
rheology of active suspensions in external flows, the
effect of steric interactions in concentrated systems,
and the dynamics of chemotactically responsive
suspensions in chemical fields. 

Abstract: Suspensions
of active particles, such as motile microorganisms and
artificial microswimmers, are known to undergo a
transition to complex largescale dynamics at high
enough concentrations. While a number of models have
demonstrated that hydrodynamic interactions can in some
cases explain these dynamics, collective motion in
experiments is typically observed at such high volume
fractions that steric interactions between nearby
swimmers are significant and cannot be neglected. This
raises the question of the respective roles of steric vs
hydrodynamic interactions in these dense systems, which
we address in this paper using a continuum theory and
numerical simulations... 

Abstract: Recent
advances in micro and nanoscale fabrication techniques
allow for the construction of rigid, helicallyshaped
microswimmers that can be actuated using applied
magnetic fields. These swimmers represent the first
steps toward the development of microrobots for
targeted drug delivery and minimally invasive surgical
procedures. To assess the performance of these devices
and improve on their design, we perform shape
optimization computations to determine swimmer
geometries that maximize speed in the direction of a
given applied magnetic torque. We directly assess
aspects of swimmer shapes that have been developed in
previous experimental studies, including helical
propellers with elongated crosssections, and attached
payloads. From these optimizations, we identify key
improvements to existing designs that result in swimming
speeds that are 250  470% of their original
values. 

Abstract: Synthetic microswimmers may
someday perform medical and technological tasks, but
predicting their motion and dispersion is challenging.
Here we show that chemically propelled rods tend to move
on a surface along large circles but curiously show
stochastic changes in the sign of the orbit curvature.
By accounting for fluctuationdriven flipping of
slightly curved rods, we obtain analytical predictions
for the ensemble behavior in good agreement with our
experiments. This shows that minor defects in swimmer
shape can yield major longterm effects on macroscopic
dispersion. 

Abstract: We
adapt the classic Taylor swimming sheet setup to
investigate both the transient and longtime dynamics of
an actuated elastic sheet immersed in a
viscoelastic fluid as it interacts with
neighboring structures. While the preferred kinematics
of the sheet are specied, the flexible sheet
interacts with the surrounding fluid and other
structures, and its realized kinematics emerges from
this coupling. We use an immersed boundary framework to
evolve the OldroydB/NavierStokes equations and capture
the spatial and temporal development of viscoelastic
stresses and sheet shape. We compare the dynamics when
the actuated sheet swims next to a free elastic
membrane, with and without bending rigidity, and next to
a fixed wall. We demonstrate that the sheets can
exploit the neighboring structures to enhance their
swimming speed and efficiency, and also examine how this
depends upon fluid viscoelasticity. When the neighboring
structure is likewise an actuated elastic sheet, we
investigate the viscoelastic dynamics of phaselocking. 

Abstract: Erosion
by flowing fluids carves striking landforms on Earth and
also provides important clues to the past and present
environments of other worlds. In these processes, solid
boundaries both influence and are shaped by the
surrounding fluid, but the emergence of morphology as a
result of this interaction is not well understood. Here,
we study the coevolution of shape and flow in the
context of erodible bodies molded from clay and immersed
in fast flowing water. Though commonly viewed as a
smoothing process, we find that erosion sculpts pointed
and cornerlike features that persist as the solid
shrinks. We explain these observations using flow
visualization and a fluid mechanical model in which the
local shear stress dictates the rate of material
removal. Experiments and simulations show that this
interaction ultimately leads to selfsimilarly receding
boundaries and a unique front surface characterized by
nearly uniform shear stress. This tendency toward
conformity of stress offers a principle for
understanding erosion in more complex geometries and
flows, such as those present in nature. 

Abstract: In microswimmer suspensions
locomotion necessarily generates fluid motion, and it is
known that such flows can lead to collective behavior
from unbiased swimming. We examine the complementary
problem of how chemotaxis is affected by selfgenerated
flows. A kinetic theory coupling runandtumble
chemotaxis to the flows of collective swimming shows
separate branches of chemotactic and hydrodynamic
instabilities for isotropic suspensions, the first
driving aggregation, the second producing increased
orientational order in suspensions of “pushers” and
maximal disorder in suspensions of “pullers.” Nonlinear
simulations show that hydrodynamic interactions can
limit and modify chemotactically driven aggregation
dynamics. In puller suspensions the dynamics form
aggregates that are mutually repelling due to the
nontrivial flows. In pusher suspensions chemotactic
aggregation can lead to destabilizing flows that
fragment the regions of aggregation. 

Abstract: The flow of viscoelastic
fluids is an area in which analytical results are
difficult to attain, yet can provide invaluable
information. We present a weakcoupling expansion that
allows for semianalytical computations of viscoelastic
fluid flows coupled to immersed structures. We apply the
expansion to the transient benchmark problem of a rigid
sphere settling from rest through a viscoelastic fluid
using the OldroydB model, and we recover the previously
observed transient behavior. The theory presented here
is in contrast to the retarded motion, or low
Weissenberg number, expansions that have received much
attention, and one advantage is that the weakcoupling
expansion offers information for orderone Weissenberg
number. The expansion's limit of validity is closely
related to the diluteness criterion for a Boger fluid.
We extend the classical settling problem to include a
timedependent bodyforce, and show how the introduction
of the forcing timescale modifies the bodydynamics. 

Abstract: Limbless
terrestrial animals propel themselves by sliding their
bellies along the ground. Although the study of dry
solidsolid friction is a classical subject, the
mechanisms underlying frictionbased limbless propulsion
have received little attention. We review and expand
upon our previous work on the locomotion of snakes, who
are expert sliders. We show that snakes use two
principal mechanisms to slither on surfaces. First,
their bellies are covered with scales that catch upon
ground asperities, providing frictional anisotropy.
Second, they are able to lift parts of their body
slightly off the ground when moving. This reduces
undesired frictional drag and applies greater pressure
to the parts of the belly that are pushing the snake
forwards. We review a theoretical framework that may be
adapted by future investigators to understand other
kinds of limbless locomotion. 

Abstract: We study
the dynamics of a layer of viscoelastic fluid, in the
Stokesian regime, that is driven from below by a 4 x 4
checkerboard pattern of rotating and counterrotating
disks. At low disk rotation rate (low Weissenberg
number) the fluid flow response is slaved to the
geometry of this forcing and divides into many steadily
rotating cells, each contained within invariant
manifolds issuing from hyperbolic stagnation points. As
the rotation rate increases these fluid cells begin to
oscillate periodically in a synchronized fashion. At a
yet higher rotation rate, this temporally periodic flow
disappears and is replaced by a richer, "turbulent"
dynamics where the flow is delocalized from the forcing
and has fluid cells that are continuously destroyed and
reformed. 

Abstract: The
Applied Mathematics Laboratory is a research laboratory
within the Mathematics Department of the Courant
Institute. It was established to carry out physical
experiments, modeling, and associated numerical studies
in a variety of problems of interest to Courant faculty,
postdocs, and graduate and undergraduate students. Most
of the research to date has involved fluid mechanics,
and we focus in this paper on the work that relates to
the interaction of fluids with rigid, moveable, or
flexible bodies. 

Abstract: The
emergence of coherent structures, largescale flows, and
correlated dynamics in suspensions of motile particles
such as swimming microorganisms or artificial
microswimmers is studied using direct particle
simulations. Simulations are performed with periodic
boundary conditions for various system sizes and
suspension volume fractions, and clearly demonstrate a
transition to largescale correlated motions in
suspensions of rearactuated swimmers, or pushers, above
a critical volume fraction and system size. This
transition, which is not observed in suspensions of
headactuated swimmers, or pullers, is characterized by
a sudden and sharp increase in fluid velocity
correlation lengths, number density fluctuations,
particle velocities, mixing efficiency, and passive
tracer diffusivities. These observations are all
consistent with and confirm for the first time a
prediction from our previous meanfield kinetic theory,
which states that instabilities will arise in uniform
isotropic suspensions of pushers when the product of the
linear system size with the suspension volume fraction
exceeds a given threshold. Good quantitative agreement
is found between the theoretically predicted threshold
and its measured value in our simulations. 

Abstract: Undulatory
locomotion of microorganisms through geometrically
complex, fluidic environments is ubiquitous in nature
and requires the organism to negotiate both hydrodynamic
effects and geometric constraints. To understand
locomotion through such media, we experimentally
investigate swimming of the nematode Caenorhabditis
elegans through fluidfilled arrays of micropillars and
conduct numerical simulations based on a mechanical
model of the worm that incorporates hydrodynamic and
contact interactions with the lattice. We show that the
nematode’s path, speed, and gait are significantly
altered by the presence of the obstacles and depend
strongly on lattice spacing. These changes and their
dependence on lattice spacing are captured, both
qualitatively and quantitatively, by our purely
mechanical model. Using the model, we demonstrate that
purely mechanical interactions between the swimmer and
obstacles can produce complex trajectories, gait
changes, and velocity fluctuations, yielding some of the
lifelike dynamics exhibited by the real nematode. Our
results show that mechanics, rather than biological
sensing and behavior, can explain some of the observed
changes in the worm’s locomotory dynamics. 

Abstract: We
present a model of cytoplasmicallydriven
microtubulebased pronuclear motion in the singlecelled
C. elegans
embryo. In this model, a centrosome pair at the male
pronucleus initiates stochastic microtubule (MT) growth.
These MTs encounter motor proteins, distributed
throughout the cytoplasm, that attach and exert a
pulling force. The consequent MTlength dependent
pulling forces drag the pronucleus through the
cytoplasm. On physical grounds, we assume that the motor
proteins also exert equal and opposite forces on the
surrounding viscous cytoplasm, here modeled as an
incompressible Newtonian fluid constrained within an
ellipsoidal eggshell. This naturally leads to streaming
flows along the MTs. Our computational method is based
on an immersed boundary formulation which allows for the
simultaneous treatment of fluid flow and the dynamics of
structures immersed within. Our simulations demonstrate
that the balance of MT pulling forces and viscous
nuclear drag is sufficient to move the pronucleus, while
simultaneously generating minusend directed flows along
MTs that are similar to the observed movement of yolk
granules toward the center of asters. Our simulations
show pronuclear migration, and moreover, a robust
pronuclear centration and rotation very similar to that
observed in vivo. We find also that the confinement
provided by the eggshell significantly affects the
internal dynamics of the cytoplasm, increasing by an
order of magnitude the forces necessary to translocate
and center the pronucleus. 

Abstract: We
consider a continuum model describing the dynamic
behavior of nematic liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) and
implement a numerical scheme to solve the governing
equations. In the model, the Helmholtz free energy and
Rayleigh dissipation are used, within a Lagrangian
framework, to obtain the equations of motion. The free
energy consists of both elastic and liquid crystalline
contributions, each of which is a function of the
material displacement and the orientational order
parameter. The model gives dynamics for the material
displacement, the scalar order parameter and the nematic
director, the latter two of which correspond to the
orientational order parameter tensor. Our simulations
are carried out by solving the governing equations using
an implicitexplicit scheme and the Chebyshev polynomial
method. The simulations show that the model can
successfully capture the shape changing dynamics of LCEs
that have been observed in experiments, and also track
the evolution of the order parameter tensor. 

Abstract: To
understand observations of low Reynolds number mixing
and flow transitions in viscoelastic fluids, we study
numerically the dynamics of the OldroydB viscoelastic
fluid model. The fluid is driven by a simple
timeindependent forcing that, in the absence of
viscoelastic stresses, creates a cellular flow with
extensional stagnation points. We find that at O(1) Weissenberg
number these flows lose their slaving to the forcing
geometry of the background force, become oscillatory
with multiple frequencies, and show continual formation
and destruction of smallscale vortices. This drives
flow mixing, the details of which we closely examine.
These new flow states are dominated by a singlequadrant
vortex, which may be stationary or cycle persistently
from cell to cell. 

Introduction: Complex fluids, such as polymer solutions, particulate suspensions, and many biological fluids, form a broad class of liquids whose mechanical and dynamical properties must be described on multiple length scales. In recent years, biological flow phenomena involving complex fluids, such as peristaltic pumping and sperm motility in the reproductive tracts, have received much attention. It has also been fruitful to consider systems such as bacterial baths as complex fluids themselves when describing them at the macroscopic scale. One of the most challenging issues when characterizing the transport properties of these systems is capturing the interactions between the fluid and the suspended microstructures (e.g. polymer coils, colloidal particles, flexible and rigid fibers, and “active” particles such as bacteria). This is important, as it is these couplings that lead to very complicated dynamical structures and largescale flow associated with mixing or enhanced swimming efficiency. In many cases, numerical simulations are as challenging as model development, since complex fluid systems can have many degrees of freedom. 
Abstract: The flapping or bending of a flexible planar structure in a surrounding fluid flow, which includes the flapping of flags and the selfstreamlining of flexible bodies, constitutes a central problem in the field of fluidbody interactions. Here we review recent, highly detailed experiments that reveal new nonlinear phenomena in these systems, as well advances in theoretical understanding, resulting in large part from the rapid development of new simulational methods that fully capture the mutual coupling of fluids and flexible solids. 

Abstract: We investigate force transmission through a layer of shearthickening fluid, here a concentrated aqueous cornstarch suspension. When a solid body is pushed through this complex fluid and approaches its containing wall, a hardened volume of the suspension is observed that adds to the leading side of the body. This volume leads to an imprint on the wall which is made of molding clay. By studying the geometry of the hardened volume, inferred by the imprint shapes, we find that its geometry is determined by the size and speed of the body. By characterizing the response of the clay to deformation we show that the force transmitted through the suspension to the wall is localized. We also study other aspects of this dynamical hardening of the suspension, such as the effect of the substrate and body shape, and its relaxation as the imposed straining is stopped. 

Abstract: Microorganisms navigate through complex environments such as biofilms and mucosal tissues and tracts. To understand the effect of a complex media upon their locomotion, we investigate numerically the effect of fluid viscoelasticity on the dynamics of an undulating swimming sheet. First, we recover recent small amplitude results for infinite sheets that suggest that viscoelasticity impedes locomotion. We find the opposite result when simulating free swimmers with large tail undulations, with both velocity and mechanical efficiency peaking for Deborah numbers near one. We associate this with regions of highly stressed fluid aft of the undulating tail. 

Abstract: We addressed how spatial frequency and orientation selectivity coexist and covary in Macaque primary visual cortex (V1) by simulating cortical layer 4Calpha of V1 with a largescale network model and then comparing the model's behavior with a population of cells we recorded in layer 4Calpha. We compared the distributions of orientation and spatial frequency selectivity, as well as the correlation between the two, in the model with what we observed in the 4Calpha population. We found that 1) in the model, both spatial frequency and orientation selectivity of neuronal firing are greater and more diverse than the LGN inputs to model neurons; 2) orientation and spatial frequency selectivity covary in the model in a way very similar to what we observed in layer 4Calpha neurons; 3) in the model, orientation and spatial frequency selectivity covary because of intracortical inhibition. The results suggest that cortical inhibition provides a common mechanism for selectivity in multiple dimensions. 

Abstract: To
better understand the role of wing and fin flexibility
in flapping locomotion, we study through experiment and
numerical simulation a freely moving wing that can
"pitch" passively as it is heaved in a fluid. We observe
a range of flapping frequencies corresponding to very
efficient locomotion, a regime of underperformance
relative to a rigid (nonpitching) wing, and a
surprising, hysteretic regime in which the flapping wing
can move horizontally in either direction (despite
left/right symmetry being broken by the specific mode of
pitching). Unlike for the rigid wing, we find that
locomotion is achieved by vertically flapped symmetric
wings with even the slightest pitching flexibility, and
the system exhibits a continuous departure from the
Stokesian regime. The phase difference between the
vertical heaving motion and consequent pitching changes
continuously with the flapping frequency, and the
direction reversal is found to correspond to a critical
phase relationship. Finally, we show a transition from
coherent to chaotic motion by increasing the wing's aspect ratio, and
then a return to coherence for flapping bodies with
circular crosssection. 

Abstract: Gammaband peaks in the power spectrum of local
field potentials (LFP) are found in multiple brain regions.
It has been theorized that gamma oscillations may serve as a
‘clock’ signal for the purposes of precise temporal encoding
of information and ‘binding’ of stimulus features across
regions of the brain. Neurons in model networks may exhibit
periodic spike firing or synchronized membrane potentials
that give rise to a gammaband oscillation that could
operate as a ‘clock’. The phase of the oscillation in such
models is conserved over the length of the stimulus. We
define these types of oscillations to be ‘autocoherent’. We
investigated the hypothesis that autocoherent oscillations
are the basis of the experimentally observed gammaband
peaks: the autocoherent oscillator (ACO) hypothesis. To test
the ACO hypothesis, we developed a new technique to analyze
the autocoherence of a timevarying signal. This analysis
used the continuous Gabor transform to examine the time
evolution of the phase of each frequency component in the
power spectrum. Using this analysis method, we formulated a
statistical test to compare the ACO hypothesis with
measurements of the LFP in macaque primary visual cortex,
V1. The experimental data were not consistent with the ACO
hypothesis. Gammaband activity recorded in V1 did not have
the properties of a ‘clock’ signal during visual
stimulation. We propose instead that the source of the
gammaband spectral peak is the resonant V1 network driven
by random inputs. 

Abstract: We study
theoretically the stability of "active suspensions",
modeled here as a Stokesian fluid in which are suspended
motile particles. The basis of our study is a kinetic
model recently posed by Saintillan & Shelley (2008)
where the motile particles are either ``Pushers'' or
``Pullers''. General considerations suggest that, in the
absence of diffusional processes, perturbations
fromuniform isotropy will decay for Pullers, but grow
unboundedly for Pushers, suggesting a possible
illposedness. Hence, we investigate the structure of
this system linearized near a state of uniform isotropy.
The linearized system is nonnormal and variable
coefficient, and not wholly described by an eigenvalue
problem, in particular at small lengthscales. Using a
high wavenumber asymptotic analysis, we show that while
longwave stability depends upon the particular swimming
mechanism, shortwave stability does not, and that the
growth of perturbations for Pusher suspensions is
associated not with concentration fluctuations, as we
show these generally decay, but with a proliferation of
oscillations in swimmer orientation. These results are
also confirmed through numerical simulation, and suggest
that the basic model is wellposed, even in the absence
of translational and rotational diffusion effects. We
also consider the influence of diffusional effects in
the case where the rotational and translational
diffusion coefficients are proportional and inversely
proportional respectively to the volume fraction and
predict the existence of a critical volume fraction or
system size for the onset of the longwave instability
in a Pusher suspension. We find reasonable agreement
between the predictions of our theory and numerical
simulations of rodlike swimmers by Saintillan &
Shelley (2007). 

Abstract: Transport
is a fundamental aspect of biology and peristaltic
pumping is a fundamental mechanism to accomplish this;
it is also important to many industrial processes. We
present a variational method for optimizing the wave
shape of a peristaltic pump. Specifically, we optimize
the wave profile of a two dimensional channel containing
a NavierStokes fluid with no assumption on the wave
profile other than it is a traveling wave (e.g. we do
not assume it is the graph of a function). Hence, this
is an infinitedimensional optimization problem. The
optimization criteria consists of minimizing the input
fluid power (due to the peristaltic wave) subject to
constraints on the average flux of fluid and area of the
channel. Sensitivities of the cost and constraints are
computed variationally via shape differential calculus
and we use a sequential quadratic programming (SQP)
method to find a solution of the first order KKT
conditions. We also use a meritfunction based
line search in order to balance between decreasing the
cost and keeping the constraints satisfied when updating
the channel shape. Our numerical implementation uses a
finite element method for computing a solution of the
NavierStokes equations, adjoint equations, as well as
for the SQP method when computing perturbations of the
channel shape. The walls of the channel are deformed by
an explicit fronttracking approach. In computing
funct,ional sensitivities with respect to shape, we use
L^{2}type
projections for computing boundary stresses and for
geometric quantities such as the tangent field on the
channel walls and the curvature; we show error estimates
for the boundary stress and tangent field
approximations. As a result, we find optimized shapes
that are not obvious and have not been previously
reported in the peristaltic pumping literature.
Specifically, we see highly asymmetric wave shapes that
are far from being sine waves. Many examples are shown
for a range of fluxes and Reynolds numbers up to Re = 500 which
illustrate the capabilities of our method. 

Abstract: This
paper is about how cortical recurrent interactions in
primary visual cortex (V1) together with feedback from
extrastriate cortex can account for spectral peaks in
the V1 local field potential (LFP). Recent studies
showed that visual stimulation enhances the γband
(25–90 Hz) of the LFP power spectrum in macaque V1. The
height and location of the γband peak in the LFP
spectrum were correlated with visual stimulus size.
Extensive spatial summation, possibly mediated by
feedback connections from extrastriate cortex and
longrange horizontal connections in V1, must play a
crucial role in the size dependence of the LFP. To
analyze stimuluseffects on the LFP of V1 cortex, we
propose a network model for the visual cortex that
includes two populations of V1 neurons, excitatory and
inhibitory, and also includes feedback to V1 from
extrastriate cortex. The neural network model for V1 was
a resonant system. The model’s resonance frequency
(ResF) was in the γband and varied up or down in
frequency depending on cortical feedback. The model’s
ResF shifted downward with stimulus size, as in the real
cortex, because increased size recruited more activity
in extrastriate cortex and V1 thereby causing stronger
feedback. The model needed to have strong local
recurrent inhibition within V1 to obtain ResFs that
agree with cortical data. Network resonance as a
consequence of recurrent excitation and inhibition
appears to be a likely explanation for γband peaks in
the LFP power spectrum of the primary visual cortex. 

Abstract: Motivated by the locomotion of flagellated microorganisms and by recent experiments of chemically driven nanomachines, we study the dynamics of bodies of simple geometric shape that are propelled by specified tangential surface stresses. We develop a mathematical description of the body dynamics based on a mixedtype boundary integral formulation. We also derive analytic axisymmetric solutions for the case of a single locomoting sphere and ellipsoid based on spherical and ellipsoidal harmonics, and compare our numerical results to these. The hydrodynamic interactions between two spherical and ellipsoidal swimmers in an infinite fluid are then simulated using secondorder accurate spatial and temporal discretizations. We find that the nearfield interactions result in complex and interesting changes in the locomotors’ orientations and trajectories. Stable as well as unstable pairwise swimming motions are observed, similar to the recent findings of Pooley et al. 